如何写英语论文格式

OnExtra-curricularActivitiesandCultivationof EnglishCommunicativeAbilityofCollegeStudents Applicant: XX Supervisor: XX Faculty: XXX May10,2008 XXXUniversity Contents 摘要 i Abstract ii 1.Introduction 1 1.1TheSignificanceofTopic 1 1.2ResearchMeth
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OnExtra-curricularActivitiesandCultivationof


  EnglishCommunicativeAbilityofCollegeStudents


  Applicant:XX


  Supervisor:XX


  Faculty:XXX


  


  May10,2008


  XXXUniversity


  Contents


  摘要i


  Abstractii


  1.Introduction1


  1.1TheSignificanceofTopic1


  1.2ResearchMethods1


  2.TheoryResearch1


  2.1LinguisticsRationale1


  2.1.1TheoryofCommunicativeCompetencebyD.H.Hymes1


  2.1.2TheoryofCommunicativeCompetencebyCanale&Swain2


  2.1.3TheoryofCommunicativeCompetencebyBachman2


  2.2TheoreticalBasisoftheTopic2


  2.2.1Piaget'sTheory2


  2.2.2AmericanScholar--AlanAndean&Weirabout“RolePlay”3


  2.3RelatedStudies3


  2.3.1ResearchesAbroad3


  2.3.2ResearchesinChina3


  3.PresentationoftheEnglishTeaching4


  3.1TheDrawbacksofTraditionalTeachingMethods4


  3.2ModernInterestTeaching——CLT4


  3.2.1DefinitionofCLT4


  3.2.2TheContentandSubstanceofCLT5


  3.2.3CLTintheUseofEnglishOut-of-classActivities6


  4.Out-of-classActivitiesandCultivationofCommunicationAbility6


  4.1TheRoleofOut-of-classActivitiesinTrainingofCommunicationAbility6


  4.2CurrentSituationofCollegeStudents’Out-of-classLearning7


  4.3AnalysisontheCausesforProblems8


  4.4CarryingOuttheOut-of-classActivitiesinScientificandEffectiveWay9


  4.5ASuggestedFrameworkforStrategyStudy11


  4.5.1Introduction11


  4.5.2AnOut-of-classEnglishLearningCenter11


  5.Conclusion12


  Bibliography14


  摘要


  美国社会语言学家DwellHymes认为,交际能力不仅包括对一种语言的语言形式的理解和掌握,而且还包括对在何时何地、以什么方式对谁恰当使用语言形式进行交际的知识体系的理解和掌握。作为课堂的延伸和补充,课外活动在提高大学生英语交际能力方面起着至关重要的作用。课外活动能创造交际活动情境,使学生充分发挥主体性、能动性和创造性,促使学生语言交际能力的和谐发展和学生素质的全面提高。本文从应用语言学的角度探讨大学生英语课外活动课程的实施理念与实践,其目的是培养学生运用英语交际的兴趣,提高英语语言能力,发挥个性特长,发展思维能力和交际能力。最后根据研究,本文提出旨在培养优化大学生课外学习的策略,并提出了建立课外英语学习中心的设想,用以配合策略培训,促进课外自主学习。


  关键词:大学生交际能力英语课外活动学习策略


  Abstract


  AmericansocietylinguistDwellHymesthinks:Communicativecompetencenotonlyincludestheunderstandingandgrasptoaformoflanguage,butalsoincludestheunderstandingandmasteringinwhenandwhere,andhowandtowhomtouselanguageappropriateformofthecommunicationsystemsofknowledge.Asanextensionoftheclassroom,out-of-classactivitiesplayavitalroleinimprovingthecapacityofcollegeEnglishcommunication.Itcancreatecommunicationsituation,sothatstudentscanbringfullplaywithinitiativeandcreativity.Improvethecommunicativeabilityanddevelopthequalityofthestudentscomprehensively.FromtheperspectiveofAppliedLinguistics,thisessaytriestostudytheideaandpracticeofEnglishactivitycourseincollegeschool,forthepurposeoffosteringstudents’interestinEnglishcommunication,improvingtheirEnglishlanguageability,givingfullplaytotheirindividualityandspecialtyanddevelopingtheirthinkingabilityandcommunicatingability.Finally,inordertoimprovethecollegestudents'learningstrategy,theessaywillprovideasuggestedframeworkforstrategytrainingbasedontheresultsofthisinvestigation.


  Keywords:collegestudents,communicativecompetence,learningstrategies,out-of-classactivities


  1.Introduction


  1.1TheSignificanceofTopic


  Englishistheinternationallanguageofthecommon.Inordertolearnadvancedscientificknowledgeinthedevelopedcountries,tostrengtheneconomictradewithallcountries,theimportanceofEnglishiseasilyobvious.However,theteachingmethodsandteachingeffectivenessofourschoolsinChinaareworrisome.IntherecentyearspeopleusuallythinktheEnglishconditionofChinesestudentsas“muteEnglish”or“deafEnglish”.TheirEnglishlearningstartsfromtheprimaryschool,withalongperiodofsevenyears,eightyears,oreven10years,theystillcannotuseEnglishtomakedialogue,cannotunderstandwhentheBritainandtheAmericansspeak.Thereasonisthattheexam-orientededucationcancultivatestudentswhoareonlygoodatexaminations,overlookingtoraisetheiroverallquality.Out-of-classEnglishlearningmayenablethemrelatedknowledge,furthertheirskills.


  1.2ResearchMethods


  Themainmethodsforthestudyareinsistingoncombiningthetheorywithpracticeandwidelyreferringtothedomesticandforeignliteraturematerial.Onthebasisofthisanalysisandresearch,someregularunderstandingsaretobesummarized.Putforwardproposalstoimprove.


  2.TheoryResearch


  2.1LinguisticsRationale


  2.1.1TheoryofCommunicativeCompetencebyD.H.Hymes


  In1972,Hymesdeliveredaspeechentitled“Oncommunicativecompetence”,put“communicativecompetence”asahighlycomplexsystemoftheknowledgeandskills.Itcanbesummarizedasaperson’sabilitytousethelanguage.Itmainlyincludesfouraspects:grammaticality,acceptability,appropriate,andactualoperational.Thecommunicativecompetenceisincludingaperson'slanguageknowledge,societyculturalknowledge,literaryknowledge,cognitivecapacity,emotionfactorandotherknowledge.Therefore,foreignlanguageteaching'sdutycannotmerelyconfinetotheinstructionoflanguageknowledge.His“Oncommunicativecompetence”theoryhasprovidedthetheorybasisforcommunicativelanguageteaching.


  2.1.2TheoryofCommunicativeCompetencebyCanale&Swain


  Inthe1980s,KanamiandSwindontheoryofcommunicativeabilityenrichedthetheoryofHymes.Theythinkthatcommunicationcapabilitiesinclude:Grammarability,sociallanguageskills,discoursecompetenceandstrategyability.Thepracticehasprovedthattheirtheoryistheguidingofthelanguageteachingandstandardofthetestingprogrammatic.


  2.1.3TheoryofCommunicativeCompetencebyBachman


  Onthebasisofvarioustheories,Bachmanconcludedandproposedthetheoryofcommunicativelanguageability.Hebelievesthatcommunicativelanguageabilityiscomposedofthreeparts:languagecompetence,strategyabilityandpsychologicalmechanismcapacity.Apartfromenrichingexpositionofthelanguageability,thestrategywillbeinthecapacityasanindependentpartofthelanguageskills.Andexplaintherelativeimportanceofimplementationfactor.


  2.2TheoreticalBasisoftheTopic


  2.2.1Piaget'sTheory


  Constructivistlearningconceptproposedthatknowledgeisnotsimplytobetaughtbyteachers,buttobelearnedbyeachstudentinacertainsituation(socialandculturalbackground).Studentscanobtainknowledgeandinformationbymakinguseofotherpeople,usingthenecessarylearningmaterialsthroughinterpersonalcooperation,andtakingtheinitiativetoconstructmeaning.Therefore,the"situation","collaboration"and"conversation"and"constructingmeaning"arethefourelementsinthelearningenvironment.


  2.2.2AmericanScholar--AlanAndean&Weirabout“RolePlay”


  “Roleplay”teachingmodelwillsimulatetheprocessofcontactbetweenmembersofthesociety.Studentsthroughthewayofconsultation,studyeachkindofacademicknowledge,inorderthattheycansolvethesocialproblemeffectivelyinthefuture.


  2.3RelatedStudies


  2.3.1ResearchesAbroad


  Theoverseasstudiesonout-of-classactivitiesmaytracetothePlatoandRousseautime.PlatoistherenownedphilosopherinancientGreece.Headvocates“thechildplay-ground”educationalmode.Thatistheprototypeofextra-curricularactivities.BythetimeofFrenchEnlightenmentandRousseau(18thcentury),"directexperience"hasreceivedwideacceptance.Rousseaustressed"outsideworldwithoutbooks,nomaterialsotherthanthefacts",andadvocated"natural"modeofeducation.TotheUnitedStatesinthe19thcentury,thefirstschoolintheworldwhichuseactivitycurriculumtheoryasteachingguidance---Dewey'sChicagoexperimentalschool,hasfounded.With1896---1903DeweyChicagoexperimentalcoursesinschoolactivitiestheUnitedStatesbegantocriticizethetraditionalcourses.Insteadofitaretheout-of-classeducationalactivities.Theseactivitycoursesarebasedonthepragmatism,lastedmorethan50yearsinAmericanschools,andtheiraffectsareprofoundandwidespread.


  2.3.2ResearchesinChina


  Inourcountry,nomatterwhatstage,thesecourseshavedifferentnames,forexample,out-of-classactivities,thesecondclassroom,classactivities,integratedsocialpracticeandsoon.Theprocessofchangesiscloselyrelatedtoourtheoreticalstudycourses.Inhistory,thedevelopmentofactivitycoursesiscloselyrelatedtheprogressandreformandguidingrulesofthegovernment.


  3.PresentationoftheEnglishTeaching


  3.1TheDrawbacksofTraditionalTeachingMethods


  ReviewingthetraditionalEnglishteachingmethod,inthepastdecadeswehaveindeedmadetheverybigprogress.Butwithsocialprogressanddevelopment,itsshortcomingsarealsoincreasinglyrevealed.


  First,becausetheChinesetestsystemisimperfect,thetraditionalEnglishteachingmethodisjustanexamination-orientededucationmodel.Inthisteaching,evaluationofEnglishlevelistoseethescores.Thiscausesmanystudentstogetahighscore,buttheycannotcommunicatewithpeopleusingEnglish.Secondly,inthetraditionalEnglishteaching,teacheristheleader,takesthemostimportantpartintheclassroom.Theteacherstandsontheplatformproposingthequestions,analyzingandexplainingthem,graspingtheentireteachingprocess.Andthestudentisjustpassiveaudience,understandsthecontentpassively,andrecordsthemassivenotes.Suchteachingmethoddoesnothaveinteraction;hardlytrainstudent’scommunicativeabilityandlanguageability.Third,inteaching,tostresstheaccuracyofknowledge,teachersusuallyuseChinesetoexplain.


  SostudentshaveverylittleopportunitytocommunicateusingEnglish.Obviously,thetraditionalEnglishteachingisknowledge-based.Comparedwiththelanguageplasticfunction,itpaysmoreattentiontotheformoflanguageandthegrammaticalfunction,ratherthanraisesthecommunicationandutilizationabilityofit.


  3.2ModernInterestTeaching——CLT


  3.2.1DefinitionofCLT


  Thecontentofcommunicativelanguageteachingismainlyonthelanguagefunctions.Emphasiscarriesonlanguageteachingintherealscene,advocatingteachingprocesstosocialization,andcultivatingtheabilityofapplication,studyingforthepurposeofapplication.Whileprominentcommunicativelanguageteaching,auxiliarybysomegrammar,translation,sentenceandsoon,isbasedonthegoaltopromotetheculturelanguagecommunicativecompetence.


  Thecoreofcommunicativelanguageteachingistoputtheteachingprocessasaprocessofcommunication.Thebasicprinciplesofteachingmaybesummarized:


  Thelanguageistheinformationcarrier,isthetoolofcommunications.Thelanguageteachingmustrealizecommunicationthrougheachkindofactivities.


  Languageutilization'ssmoothnessismoreimportantthanaccuracy.Makingmistakeisnaturalandinevitable;wemaycorrectthemgraduallyinthelearningprocess.


  Studentsshouldtakethemainpartinteachingprocess.Theteachermuststimulatethestudents'enthusiasmandinitiativeparticipation;makestudentsenhancecommunicationabilityinthelanguageutilization.Communicativelanguageteachingadvocatedthefullyparticipationofthestudents.Teacher'sdutyistoprovideandcreatetherealhumanrelationsscene,enablestudentstoutilizethelanguagefreelyandinitiatively.


  3.2.2TheContentandSubstanceofCLT


  Thepurposeofthecommunicativelanguageteachingistocultivatestudents'communicationability.It’stheheuristicmethodofteaching.InducethestudentstospeakEnglishboldly.Provideasmuchaspossibledrillopportunitiesforstudents.ButitdoesnotmeanthatthecommunicativelanguageteachingonlypaysgreatattentiontotheoralEnglish,repellingthegrammarteaching.Thecultivationofcommunicationcapabilityshouldmanifestintheformoffouraspectsoflistening,speaking,readingandwriting.Indeed,incommunicativelanguageteaching,someteacherspursuethespokenlanguagesimply,nomatterwhetherthestudentscanfollowandunderstandornot.Asaresultthemajorityofstudentsonlylearnsomespokenlanguages,buttheknowledgestudyisnotsolid,andpolarizationappearsobviously.Thisindicatesthattheseteachersdonotunderstandthecommunicativelanguageteachingrightlyandcompletely.


  Intheteaching,listening,speaking,reading,writingisinalienableandrelatedclosely.Theyareinteractivewitheachother.Theteachershouldhelpstudentgetknowledge,ratherthaninstillitintothestudents.Therehavebeeninteractionsbetweenteachersandstudents.Theyshouldcoordinateclosely,completetheinstructiontogether.


  3.2.3CLTintheUseofEnglishOut-of-classActivities


  Accordingtostudents'majorcharacterandemploymentneed,makesurestudent'sunderstandingdomain,emotiondomainandskilldomain,andthencarryonthegoalstipulationindetail.Arrangetheout-of-classactivitiescontent,thusestablishEnglishout-of-classactivitiestargetsystem.Andtheprocessofteachingistheprocessinwhichteachersandstudentsinteractwitheachother.Theteachershouldgivestudentsenoughfreespacetodisplay,donotcriticizethemeagerly,pointoutmistakes,makethesummaryordecidetheanswer.Thismayavoidstudentsbeingdiscouraged,butcausethemtohavethesenseofachievement,formtheinterestsinthecommunicativeactivities.Theexpressionofstudentsislimited;teachersshouldadoptvariousmeanstoenablestudentstohavesufficientinformationadded,andquicklychangeintoactualcommunicationability.Inaddition,thedesignofEnglishout-of-classactivitiesisdiversified.Itcanmaketeacherstoteachthroughplaying,causethestudenttobecomethetrulyindependentlearnergradually.


  4.Out-of-classActivitiesandCultivationofCommunicationAbility


  4.1TheRoleofOut-of-classActivitiesinTrainingofCommunicationAbility


  Out-of-classactivitiesareaneffectivewaytodevelopcommunicativecompetence.Theclassroominstructionandtheout-of-classactivitiesaretwoimportantconstituentsintheforeignlanguageteachingsystem.Theforeignlanguageclassroominstructionisthebasicteachingform,playstheleadingrole.However,itisundeniablethatout-of-classactivitiesplayanactiveroleincultivatingcommunicativeability.Itcanconsolidateandstrengthentheclassroomknowledge,sothattheknowledgecanbeimprovedfurtherthroughout-of-classactivities.Thethemeofextra-curricularactivitiescanbecombinedwithclassroomteaching.Theyinfiltratemutually,theglossaryisrelatedtoclassroomsubject,thesentenceandlanguagesynthesisutilizationabilitywhichcouldbeimprovedgraduallyinthepracticeofout-of-classactivities.


  Thegoalofforeignlanguageextra-curricularactivitiesisjusttoenhancetheabilityofstudents'languagecommunication.Thesehottopicsoflifeaswellasvariouspractices,withtherealnaturallanguageenvironment,couldarousestudents'studyenthusiasmanddisplaytheirintelligence.LetstudentsstudyandconsolidateEnglishineachkindofactivities,enhancetheirforeignlanguagecommunicationskills.


  4.2CurrentSituationofCollegeStudents’Out-of-classLearning


  Asweknow,Englishlearningisnotrestrictedinclass,andout-of-classlearningisalsoaveryimportantpart.Especiallyforcollegestudents,theirclasstimeisverylimited,sotheirEnglishlearninghastodependontheirout-of-classlearning.AspointedoutbyprofessorZhe,fromBeijingUniversity,thereareonly288classperiodsforcollegestudents,whilelanguagelearningisarduouswork.Classtimeisverylimited,soweshouldteachstudentshowtolearnEnglishratherthanteachEnglish.Asweknow,toagreatextent,theirEnglishproficiencydependsontheirownlearning.Comparedwithin-classlearning,out-of-classlearningisparticularlyimportant.Ithasitsuniqueadvantages:first,thereisplentyofsparetimetoexploitforlearners,whichisthecrucialconditionforsuccessfullearning;second,out-of-classlearningcanprovidelearnersrealworldpractice.Additionally,theycanhelplearnersbroadentheirscopeofvisionandcultivatetheirlearningability.Butforalongtime,influencedbyourtraditionalteachingandlearning,collegestudents’out-of-classlearningisfarfrombeingsatisfactory.Thedisorderedphenomenainlearningareveryserious,exactly,mostcollegestudentsjustlearnEnglishblindlyaccordingtotheirowninterests,lackingsystematicallearningplan.Especially,forthefreshmenandsecond-yearstudents,theyareoftenfreeatbeginningandbusywhenanexaminationiscoming,sotheirout-of-classlearningisoftenatwillandloose.Thatistosaytheyhavenogoals,nodirectionsandnomanagement.Theyoftenfeelnothingtodoordon’tknowhowtodo.What’smore,mostofthemareusedtodependingontheteachersandthetextbooksandnotaccustomedtothelearningsituationwithouthomework.


  Ontheotherhand,toourdisappointment,facingthisserioussituation,thecollegesandtheteachersdon’tcarryouteffectivemeasurestoorganizeanddirectthestudents’out-of-classlearning.ThephenomenabecomeabigbarrierforlearnerstopromotetheirEnglishproficiency.Thereforenow,changingthisunfavorablesituationbecomesanurgenttask.


  4.3AnalysisontheCausesforProblems


  Afteryouhavelearnedthecurrentsituationofthecollegestudents’out-of-classlearning,Ithinkyoucan’thelpaskingwhatthecauseforthisserioussituationis.Ofcause,thereasonsarevarious.Takingthecollegestudents’featuresofout-of-classlearningintoconsideration,wefindthatthebasiccauseisthestudents’previousEnglishlearningexperience.


  Beforethesestudentscametocollege,theyhadsixorsevenyearsofEnglishlearning.ThislearningexperiencehaslaidstronginfluenceontheircurrentcollegeEnglishlearning.Theteachersnearlydominateeveryaspectofthelearners’learning,includingtheirout-of-classlearning,andthestudentsseldomgettherealindependentout-of-classlearning,mostoftheout-of-classlearningisdevotedtohomeworkorothertasksrequiredbytheteachers.Inlearning,thelearnersareusuallyledbytheirteachersanddon’thavetodecidehowlongtheyshouldlearnandwhatmaterialstheyshouldchoose.Gradually,thelearnersbegantodependontheteachersforeverythinginlearning;asaresult,studentshavelongbeenaccustomedtolearndependently.Theytendtodependononeortwobooksandtheteachers,whiletheyarenotawareofthecrucialroleofthemselves.Inherently,thiskindoflearningexperienceleadstothelackofthelearningstrategies.


  Wefindthatthestudentsareexactlylackingthreegroupsoflearningstrategies.First,theydonothavethenecessarymeta-cognitivestrategies,sotheyjustblindlylearnaccordingtotheirinterests.Thesituationinevitablyleadstonoplans,nogoalsandnodirections.Thatiswhymanystudentsclaimthattheygetusedtoconstantcompulsion,supervisionandassignmentdeadlines,fortheyfeelunabletotimetablethemselvesandtakeresponsibilityfortheirownlearningifnooneforcesthem.Second,theyhavenoappropriatecognitivestrategiestoapproachtheirspecificlanguagelearningandtosolvethespecificproblemsinlearning.Asaresult,eventhoughsomestudentsshowtheiroppositiontodependingontheteachers;theyareatalossonhowtodealwiththem,whenlackingtheappropriatecognitivestrategies.Thesameistruefortheirsocialaffectivestrategies.Inaword,thelackofstrategiesgetsitswaytotheirdependentlanguagelearning.


  4.4CarryingOuttheOut-of-classActivitiesinScientificandEffectiveWay


  Howtocarryouttheout-of-classactivitiesscientificallyandeffectively?Ithinkwehavetopayattentiontothefollowingthreeaspects:


  First,thesocializationoftheactivitycourses.Orallanguageistheface-to-facecommunication,soinformationinteractionisveryimportant.Studentsandteachers(orstudents)talkaboutthesociallifewhichcloselyrelatedtothehotissues.Thesetopicsoftencanleadtogreatinterestinstudents,suchas:lovevalues,theprosandconsofcomputersandtelevision,populationgrowth,fakeandshoddy,consumption,theincreaseoftuition,familyrelations,andsomeplanofthefuture.Weareverysensitivetothesetopics.Sotheyoftentalkaboutthemwithhighlyinterest,andthelanguageisrich.Itisofpracticalsignificanceforstudentstostudyforeignlanguagecommunication.Teachersalsocanorganizethelanguagepractice,forexample:weekendexcursions,shopping,picnics,andsoon,organizingstudentstolistenEnglishnews,watchingfilms,videosandtelevision,becausethesemodernmediacanprovidestandardEnglishandlotsofwesterncultural.Simultaneouslytheycanmobilizestudentstousetheirowneyesandears.Inaddition,theorganizationofspecializedforeignlanguageactivitiesisaprettygoodchoiceforstudentswithvariousformsofEnglishreadingcontest,speechcontest,Englishcorner,extra-curricularstudygroup,Englishtheatricalperformances,foreignlanguagebroadcasts…GivestudentsaenvironmentwhichcanhelpthemtostudyEnglish.EnablestudentstoconsolidateEnglishinavarietyofactivitiesandenhancetheforeignlanguagecommunicationskills.


  Secondly,therealityoftheactivitiescourses.Languageisthecarrierofculture.Inacertainsense,tolearnalanguageistolearnanotherculture.AspointedoutbyBrown:"Whenyouteachalanguage,youhavetotransferacomplexculture,practices,values,andwaysofthinking,emotionalandbehavioralsystems."Thisiswhytodayforeignlanguageteachingespeciallyfocusesonculturalawarenesstraining.Thesignificanceofintroducingtherealtextis:makingstudentscontactwithforeignculturedirectly,trainingstudent’sculturalawareness;requiringthestudentstoparticipateinthemeaningfulcommunicationinthewayoflearningmothertongue,notonlydisplayingthegrammarorglossaryknowledge.Inaddition,thedesignoflearningtasksshouldprovideclearandreallanguageinformation,sothatstudentscanstudyEnglishinanatural,authenticcontext,masterthelanguageapplied.Out-of-classactivitiesshouldbelookedasthesameastheactivitiesinthereallife.Wemustcreateanenvironmentsimilartorealsociety;cultivatestudents'abilitytouseEnglishinworkandinthereallife.


  Thirdly,thehumanityofactivitycourses.Out-of-classactivitiesaretheexchangesofemotions,ideas,andinformationbetweenteachersandstudents.Itisatwo-wayexchangeofteachersandstudentsasalinkingbridge.Theteachercounselsstudenttoinquesttheteachingprocess,givesbacktothestudentsinclass.Theconsciousnessofthestudentsarefullyrespectedandstrengthened.That’sforlayingafoundationofcultivatingself-confidence,developingindividualpotentialanddisplayingcreativethinking.Theroleofteachersinextra-curricularactivitiespracticeshouldbeencouragedasparticipantsandcollaborators.Thedominantpositionintheout-of–classactivitiesisstudents;theyshouldplaythemainrole.Becausethestudentscarryontheactivityundertheactivelearningcondition.Beingfreefromclassroomenvironment,teacherandtime,mentalityofstudentswillalwaysbeinstablecondition,fullofimaginations.Theynolongerfeelthatlearningforeignlanguagesistheresultoftheimpositionoftheoutsideworld.Therefore,theinitiativewillbeenhancedgreatlywithenthusiasticunprecedentedupsurge,andEnglishstudyisnolongeraburdenbutapleasure.


  4.5ASuggestedFrameworkforStrategyStudy


  4.5.1Introduction


  Aspointedoutabove,noempiricalevidencehasyetbeenprovidedtodeterminethebestmethodforconductingstrategytraining,butatleastthreeaspectsofthetraininghavebeenidentified.Theyhavebeendesigned1)toraisestudents’awarenessastothepurposeandrationaleofstrategyuse.2)togivestudentsopportunitiestopracticethestrategiesthattheyarebeingtaught.3)tohelpstudentsunderstandhowtousethestrategiesinnewlearningcontexts.Thesethreecomponentsarenecessaryforeachapproachinconductingstrategytraining.


  4.5.2AnOut-of-classEnglishLearningCenter


  Afteryouknowstrategytrainingprobably.Inordertoimproveout-of-classlearning,Ihaveasuggestionindetail.


  Accordingtotheoriesonsecondlanguagelearningacquisition,languagelearningenvironmentiscrucialforcollegestudents’Englishlearning,especially,fortheirout-of-classlearning.Throughinvestigation,wefindthatonlyasmallpercentageofthe400participantsreadEnglishnewspapersregularly,orwatchEnglishprogramonTV,orlistentoEnglish;mostoftheparticipantsareonlyusedtoreadingEnglishbooksbythemselvesratherthanresortingtootherwaysofimprovingtheirEnglishproficiency.Throughindividualinterviews,wefindtworeasonsforthisresult:oneisthatcollegesdon’tprovidelearnerswithappropriateout-of-classlearningenvironment;theotheristhatmostlearnersfeelthattheylackproperlearningatmosphere,learningfacilities,learningresources,andnecessaryguidanceandtechnicalsupportfromteachersorprofessionalsintheirout-of-classlearning.ThisiswhymanylearnersfeelthattheysimplydonotseemtoknowwhattodowiththeirfreetimetoexploittheEnglishenvironment.Infact,thecollegestudent’sfailureinout-of-classlearningcanbeattributedtwoaspects:oneisthelackoflearningstrategies;theotheristhelackofnecessaryenvironment.


  Fromthepointsmentionedabove,wecansummarizethatlanguagelearningenvironmentandlearningstrategiesarethetwofactors,whichinfluencecollegestudents’out-of-classlearning.Althoughinmostcollegesoruniversities,facilitiesavailableincludemultimediarooms,videoroomsandcomputernetwork,ontheonehand,thesefacilitiesarefarfrombeingenough,what’smore,theyaremostlyusedforteachingandnotopenforout-of-classlearning;inaword,allthesefacilitieslackefficiency.


  Basedonthediscussionabove,Ihaveproposedtosetupaflexibleself-accesslanguagelearningcenterwhichwillgivestudentsfreeaccesstoavarietyoflanguagelearningandprovidenecessaryguidanceandtechnicalsupport.Thecenteraimsatintroducingstudentstoindependentlearningstrategiesandcreatingallkindsofopportunitiestohelpthemusethesestrategies,andlearningconditionsforlearners.


  Inthiscenter,materialsareorganizedandcataloguedtofacilitateindividualizedchoices.Thelearningresourcesincludebooks,magazines,newspapers,worksheets,audioandvideotapes,discsandmulti-mediasoftwarepackageandonlineresources.Thusintheirsparetime,thecollegestudentswillbeabletousethematerialsattheirownlevelandpace,andtoworkatatimeconvenienttothem.Apartfromprovidingresourcesandfacilities,someprofessionalstaffisneededinthiscenter,becauseself-accesslearningisnewtothestudents,andthelearnersneedcertainhelpandsupport.Whentheyexposetoit,theywillencountersomeproblems,suchastechnicaldifficulties,methodproblemsandsoon.Thereforetheyneedallkindsofhelportechnicalsupporttoexploitthiscenter.


  5.Conclusion


  Thispaperhashighlightedtheimportanceofcultivatingcommunicativeabilityinout-of-classEnglishlearning.Forthistopic,foreignscholarshavemadelotsofresearchesrelated.Withthedevelopmentofsociety,raisingstudent'sspokenEnglishintheout-of-classactivitybecomesoneeffectivestudymethodgradually.Withalonghistory,itismorewidelyrespectedinourmoderntime.Buttherearestillalotofpeoplewhodonotunderstandthetruemeaningofit,sotheycannotapplyitfullyintheactualteachingandlearning.Inordertoprovidesomesolutionfortheproblemsexistinginthecollegestudents’out-of-classlearning,anout-of-classEnglishlearningcenterisdesignedtoprovidelearnerswithstrategytraining.


  Inshort,thetheoryandpracticehaveprovedthattheout-of-classEnglishactivitiescanstimulatethecuriosityandinterestinstudy,trainingstudents’languageskills,thinkingability,theabilitytoinnovate,andautonomousself-learningability,aswellascommunicationandcooperationcapacity.


  Bibliography


  [1]A.S.Hornby.OxfordAdvancedLearner’sEnglish-ChineseDictionary.TheCommercialPress,1997.


  [2]Nida.MeaningAcrossCultures.Ordis’sPress,1981.


  [3]Yousef,F.S.Cross-culturalCommunication.HumanOrganization,1974.


  [4]蒋磊.英汉习语的文化观照与对比.武汉大学出版社,2000.


  [5]贾玉新.跨文化交际学.上海外语教育出版社,1997.


  [6]卢梅.英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译.西南科技大学学报,2005,(01):91-93.


  ……


  


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